Vaccines usually require years of research and testing before they reach the clinic and are used clinically, but scientists are competing for the best vaccine with the best efficacy. It will probably take time until next year to produce a definitive coronavirus vaccine. Researchers are testing 57 vaccines in human clinical trials, and at least 87 preclinical vaccines in animals have been actively and continuously researched. In this memo, we will discuss the latest achievements in the production of corona vaccine in Iran and the world. Please be with Artan Press.
*** Whispers of Corona vaccine production at the beginning of the year
Work on the vaccine began in January this year with the decoding of the SARS-Quaid gene. The first human immunization tests began in March, and 13 trials have now reached the final stages of testing. Some of these experiments have failed, and others may abandon the vaccine project process without a clear result and stop the project. But how many vaccines may succeed in stimulating the immune system to produce effective antibodies against the virus?
This question has a vital answer for many industries, and in this analysis we will look at the latest performance of these vaccines. Here is the status of all vaccines that have been tested in humans, along with a promising set of vaccines that are still being tested in animals. Will be mentioned.
*** Trying to make an economical corona vaccine
At present, the general characteristics of cost-effective vaccines that are in the queue for mass production, although these vaccines have the potential to prevent infection, can not completely cure Crohn’s disease. کردن. Scientists test a new vaccine on cells and then give it to animals such as mice or monkeys to see if it triggers an immune response.
Currently, the international community is working on 87 preclinical vaccines that are in active development and awaiting food and drug approval. In practice, Corona has become a fierce competition for pharmaceutical companies in the United States, China, Germany, and France, and any country that responds more quickly will make huge dollar profits.
*** The main phases of corona vaccine approval
In Phase 1 safety tests, scientists give the vaccine to a small number of people to test for safety and dosage, as well as to confirm immune stimulation. In Phase 2, extensive experiments are performed in which scientists give the vaccine to hundreds of people divided into different groups, such as children and the elderly, to see if the vaccine has produced different results in them.
These tests further test the immunity and ability of the vaccine to stimulate the immune system. In the third phase, scientists give the vaccine to thousands of people and wait to see how many become infected, compared to volunteers who have received similar drugs or vaccines. These tests can determine if the vaccine protects against the coronavirus.
In June, the F.D.A. He advised vaccine makers to focus on evidence that the vaccine can protect at least 50 percent of those who receive it. In addition, phase 3 trials are large enough to provide evidence of relatively rare side effects that may have been missed in previous studies.
*** China and Russia try to bypass the third phase of the corona vaccine
China and Russia have approved the vaccines without waiting for the results of the Phase 3 trials and have begun practically starting clinical trials throughout the community. Experts say this hasty process carries serious risks. Regulators and people who monitor the effectiveness of vaccines on an instant basis, in each country, review the test results and decide whether to approve the vaccine or not.
During an epidemic, the vaccine may receive an emergency use permit before it is officially approved. Once the vaccine is licensed, researchers continue to monitor people receiving the vaccine to make sure the vaccine is safe and effective. One way to accelerate vaccine production is to combine phases. Some coronavirus vaccines are currently in the testing phase of 1/2, for example, they are being tested on hundreds of people for the first time.
*** Iran’s latest achievements in the production of corona vaccine
Vaccine production in Iran began in the early days of the coronavirus epidemic, and despite sanctions, Iranian researchers have not been idle since the first days of the unknown and deadly coronavirus outbreak, and have begun efforts to develop the Covid 19 vaccine. Iran has passed the animal vaccine testing process and is waiting for a human testing license after two weeks. The first sample of the new generation recombinant vaccine against coronavirus has entered the initial testing phase since late October, and its clinical testing phase is expected to be completed by the end of February.
Most likely, if the vaccine production process proceeds linearly and there is no uncertainty and the test results are successful, by the end of this year, the Iranian version of the corona vaccine will leave its initial production and practically in the spring of next year its mass production license. Be issued.
*** Significant progress in vaccine production; Despite economic sanctions
In the current situation and despite all the economic and international sanctions, Iran is conducting studies and clinical and laboratory tests of the native Crohn’s vaccine side by side with developed countries. Predict if the results of current studies are successful
It turns out that the Iranian vaccine produced is offered at a very reasonable price of $ 6 to $ 10. This price is very reasonable compared to its foreign counterparts produced in Germany and the United States, which can attract the attention of other countries if clinical results are proven.
Since the effectiveness of the vaccine must be tested in a wide range of people and provide a relatively long period of resistance to the disease, so the final version can not be issued with cross-sectional success. Therefore, Iran is patient in this regard and cross-sectional results No media. It is expected that with the completion of the third wave of Corona in Iran at the end of winter, it will be possible to comment on the final result of the Iranian native vaccine.
*** The latest news on the modern corona vaccine
On November 30, Boston-based Moderna announced that it had applied to the Food and Drug Administration for emergency use less than a year after the first clinical trial for the corona virus vaccine began. This is the second app to be launched just two weeks after Pfizer and BioNTech. If Moderna receives the license, the first vaccination could start on December 21. The news brought the first shocks of falling gold prices and the weakening of digital currencies, and the news of the discovery of the vaccine had a profound effect on economic markets.
*** Structural similarities of leading vaccines
Like Pfizer and BioNTech, Moderna got its vaccine from a genetic molecule called messenger RNA (mRNA). In recent years, the company has tested mRNA vaccines for a number of diseases, but has not yet released vaccines. The company has also publicly announced genetic instructions for making the Corona virus protein, which has helped boost the production of other vaccines.
The US government is leading Moderna’s efforts with nearly $ 1 billion in support, making it one of the most cost-effective pharmaceutical projects in the world. In March, the company’s scientists were the first to test the Covid-19 vaccine in humans. Phase 3 trials of 30,000 volunteers began on July 27 after the results of these studies were promising.
*** Lack of economic justification in mass production of modern vaccines
Commercially, Moderna lost its patent on some of its vaccine technologies in July. The following month, the company said it could not be sure that for the first time the alleged inventions of the Corona vaccine could be recognized. The company, meanwhile, has traded with several countries for vaccines if approved.
On August 11, if the vaccine was approved to be safe and effective, the US government awarded the company $ 1.5 billion for an additional 100 million doses. On November 25, the company agreed with the European Commission to supply a maximum of 160 million doses. Modern deals have been similar with Canada, Japan and Qatar.
On November 9, New York-based Pfizer and German company BioNTech released preliminary data showing that the company’s coronavirus vaccine was more than 90 percent effective, the first time this has been confirmed with such precision, and now a Historical statistics in corona vaccine studies. This was the first time anyone had found such evidence. One week later, Moderna reported similar findings with a similar vaccine.
*** Fiers Vaccine Achievements
In May, Pfizer and BioNTech began a phase-2 test on two versions of the mRNA vaccine. They found that both versions trigger volunteers to produce antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, as well as immune cells called T cells that respond to the virus. They found that a version called BNT162b2 caused significantly fewer side effects, such as fever and fatigue, and so they chose to transfer it to phase 2/3 trials.
On July 27, companies announced the start of Phase 3.2 testing with 30,000 volunteers in the United States and other countries, including Argentina, Brazil and Germany. In a provisional study, companies reported that volunteers experienced mild to moderate side effects after receiving the first dose. On September 12, Pfizer and BioNTech announced that they were looking to expand their clinical studies in the United States to 43,000 participants. The following month, they received permission to test the vaccine on 12-year-olds
*** Satisfactory human results of Vaccines
In September, Dr. Albert Borla, CEO of Pfizer, said the Phase 3 test had yielded satisfactory results as soon as October arrived. Pfizer and BioNTech concluded that the vaccine was 95% effective. Among people over 65 who often have a poor response to vaccines, 94% were effective. In addition, this test did not have any serious side effects. On November 20, the company submitted an application for an emergency use permit. The FDA is expected to take several weeks to review the program.